Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
The Light Metals series is widely recognized as the definitive source of information on new developments in aluminum production technology. This new volume presents proceedings from 2013's Light Metal Symposia, covering the latest research and technologies on such areas as alumina and bauxite, aluminum reduction technology, electrode technology for aluminum production, cast shop for aluminum production, aluminum processing aluminum alloys, and cost affordable titanium IV. It also includes papers from a keynote presentation session discussing impurities in the aluminum supply chain are also included.
This volume contains papers presented in the third international symposium titled Fatigue of Materials: Advances and Emergences in Understanding held during the Materials Science and Technology 2014 meeting. The book contains contributions from engineers, technologists, and scientists from academia, research laboratories, and industries. The papers are divided into six topical areas:
Session 1: Aluminum Alloys
Session 2: Ferrous Materials I
Session 3: Ferrous Materials II
Session 4: Composite Materials
Session 5: Advanced Materials
Session 6: Modeling
The papers cover a broad spectrum of topics that represent the truly diverse nature of the subject of fatigue as it relates to the world of materials.
This book presents a collection of papers presented at the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), a specialty conference organized by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). This meeting convened ICME stakeholders to examine topics relevant to the global advancement of ICME as an engineering discipline.
The papers presented in these proceedings are divided into six sections: (1) ICME Applications; (2) ICME Building Blocks; (3) ICME Success Stories and Applications (4) Integration of ICME Building Blocks: Multi-scale Modeling; (5) Modeling, Data and Infrastructure Tools, and (6) Process Optimization. .
These papers are intended to further the global implementation of ICME, broaden the variety of applications to which ICME is applied, and ultimately help industry design and produce new materials more efficiently and effectively.
With impending and burgeoning societal issues affecting both developed and emerging nations, the global engineering community has a responsibility and an opportunity to truly make a difference and contribute. The papers in this collection address what materials and resources are integral to meeting basic societal sustainability needs in critical areas of energy, transportation, housing, and recycling.
Contributions focus on the engineering answers for cost-effective, sustainable pathways; the strategies for effective use of engineering solutions; and the role of the global engineering community. Authors share perspectives on the major engineering challenges that face our world today; identify, discuss, and prioritize engineering solution needs; and establish how these fit into developing global-demand pressures for materials and human resources.
Cerebral palsy is a lifelong condition that affects the individual, family, and immediate community. Therefore, the goal of allowing the individual with cerebral palsy to live life with the least impact of the disability requires c- plex attention to the individual and the family. Furthermore, society needs to be sensitive and to accommodate individuals with disabilities by limiting architectural impediments and providing accessible public transportation and communication. The educational system provides the key means for helping the individual prepare to function in society to his or her maximum ability. In many ways, the medical care system probably has the least sign- icant role in preparing the child with cerebral palsy to function optimally in society. However, the medical care system is the place where parents first learn that their child has developmental issues outside the expected norm. It is almost universally the place where parents also expect the child to be made normal in our modern society. In earlier times, the parents would expect healing to possibly come from the doctor, but also they would place hope for healing in religion. As this belief in spiritual or miraculous healing has - creased, a significant font of hope has decreased for parents of young ch- dren with disabilities.
Unter den medizinischen Disziplinen hat die Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie die grßte Zukunft: In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat das Fach in Forschung und Versorgung Quantensprünge durchlaufen. Diese Entwicklung setzt sich fort. Herausforderungen sind die weitere Erforschung und der zunehmende Behandlungsbedarf im Bereich psychischer Erkrankungen. In dem Buch "Psychiatrie 2020" skizziert die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN) neben einer Übersicht über die Entwicklung des Faches eine Vision für das Jahr 2020. Psychiatrie 2020 plus, ist nun die erweiterte und aktualisierte Auflage der Bestandsaufnahme und Vision für das Jahr 2020.
Scientific visualization has become an important tool for visual analysis in many scientific, engineering, and medical disciplines.
This book focuses on efficient visualization techniques, which are the prerequisite for the interactive exploration of complex data sets. High performance is primarily achieved by devising algorithms for the fast graphics processing units (GPUs) of modern graphics hardware. Other aspects discussed in the book include parallelization on cluster computers with several GPUs, adaptive rendering methods, multi-resolution models, and non-photorealistic rendering techniques for visualization. Covering both the theoretical foundations and practical implementations of algorithms, this book provides the reader with a basis to understand and reproduce modern GPU-based visualization approaches.
This is a comprehensive work summarizing the current state of knowledge of the biology of the hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of Southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho and Maputo Province, Mozambique). It provides an overview of the history of tick research in Southern Africa and the evolution of our knowledge of the ticks' distribution and biology, as well as the methods used to determine tick distribution, abundance and host preference. The morphologies of most of the tick species known to occur in Southern Africa are described and illustrated, and their distributions are described and mapped in relation to the biomes of the region. The known hosts for each tick species are listed, and the tick's host preferences are discussed. Information on most species life cycle in the laboratory and the field, and their seasonal occurrence, is summarized. The diseases of animals and humans transmitted or caused by each tick species are summarized in relation to tick ecology. Aspects of the biology of the major hosts relevant to tick infestations are described, and extensive tick/host and host/tick lists are provided for each country
This atlas is unique in comparing the two disciplines of dental implant surgery and tooth-preserving surgery with respect to common procedures, problems, and failures and in providing excellent guidance on the prevention and management of complications. The etiology of a wide variety of implant-related and non-implant-related complications and failures is carefully explained. Since many complications have their roots in oral and periodontal surgical maneuvers, these maneuvers are themselves discussed and extensively illustrated. The most frequently used tooth preservation procedures are also fully described, with emphasis on correct surgical technique as a means to avoid complications. The use of these procedures is constantly weighed against the effects of tooth removal and insertion of dental implants. The text is complemented by the inclusion of a substantial number of helpful references. While the atlas is intended primarily for dentists involved in outpatient implant dentistry and oral surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgeons will also find the descriptions of innovative techniques or maneuvers to be of interest, including those relating to the selection of incision and flap design and the sinus floor elevation techniques.
This book presents a geographical survey of the Netherlands, reviewing recent and historic developments that made the nation. It is a relatively wealthy country and the Dutch belong to the happiest and healthiest on earth. But these qualities are not evenly spread over the country. The urban agglomeration of Randstad Holland in the west hosts most of the nation's capital and young, well-educated people whereas older and less-educated people are concentrated in the peripheral areas in the north, east and south. Interactions between physical and human geographical aspects of the Netherlands are described quite extensively. Its position on one of Europe's most prominent deltas, its abundance of energy resources and the course of history have all contributed to its present national position and international networks. But early and recent Dutch have also shaped this country. They reclaimed lakes and shallow seas, protected the lowlands against floods, re-allotted land parcels and designed and developed urban areas. Besides its focus on water-related topics, the book also covers social and cultural aspects. The book also discusses future challenges and offers scenarios for solutions. This is a book for those interested in a wide variety of recent aspects of the geography of the Netherlands described in a historical context. It appeals to students and researchers of many disciplines in geography, urban and landscape planning, water management, history and cultural studies.
This book outlines, from a surgeon's standpoint, how physicians and mid-level providers working at wound care centres can expeditiously and effectively manage wounds. It comprehensively addresses the concept of wound healing, from the healing process to debridement concepts, and various antiseptics and local antibiotics used in dressing materials to facilitate healing. The book also discusses the latest inventions and treatment options that have revolutionized wound healing, such as: oxygen therapy, ozone therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, electric therapy and ultrasonic wound therapy. In closing, it examines the latest regenerative therapies based on stem cell therapy, cellular therapy and gene therapy. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable resource for medical students and physicians dealing with wound management, as well as a reference guide for nurses in primary and tertiary wound care settings.
Tagtäglich sind wir Teil eines kommunikativen Prozesses sei dies in der Familie, mit Freunden oder am Arbeitsplatz. Nicht immer eine einfache Sache ab und an sind wir hierbei mit Situationen konfrontiert, die zu Strungen und Disharmonie führen knnen. Jürg Isenschmid versteht es, unser Verhalten in den unterschiedlichsten sozialen Gefügen anschaulich zu analysieren und uns erkennen zu lassen, dass jeder dazu beitragen kann, ein friedliches Miteinander zu gestalten auch Sie!
Dieses Buch vermittelt die Grundlagen der Diagnostik von Gleichgewichtsstrungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der thermischen Videonystagmographie. Es werden zunächst die anatomischen und physiologischen Grundlagen des Vestibularsystems sowie die Anamnese und klinischen Untersuchungen und anschließend die apparativen diagnostischen Mglichkeiten zusammengefasst. Die Darstellung des Vorgehens bei der Diagnostik der einzelnen Krankheitsbilder ist sehr praxisnah gehalten. Das Buch beseitigt viele Unsicherheiten in der Diagnose der zugrundeliegenden Ursachen von Gleichgewichtsstrungen, die es nach wie vor gibt. Für HNO-Ärzte, Hausärzte und Neurologen in Klinik und Praxis.
This proceedings volume focuses on the importance and power of spatial thinking and planning, especially by applying geospatial technologies in solving the past and current global problems such as environmental degradation, urban pollution, climate change, agricultural management and epidemiology.The proceedings of the International Conference on Geography and Geoinformatics for Sustainable Development 2018 (ICGGS 2018) consist of a wide range of case studies from developing countries.
The contributions address challenges of developing countries in mainstreaming sustainable development paradigm into their economy with the aim to improve and manage natural resources and environment in a sustainable manner.
One of the main goals of the conference and the proceedings is to share and exchange different perspectives on global, regional and local spatial issues and how the concept of spatial planning and thinking can be used in building resilience to natural and anthropogenic threats in many sectors (such as water, ecosystem, agriculture and health). This includes a summary of how the key concepts of geospatial technologies could contribute to environmental sustainability and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as well as an outlook on challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. This book explains how geoinformatics can help analyse, model and explain sustainable development within a geographic context and thus provide the integrative framework necessary for global collaboration consensus and evidence-based decision-making. It highlights the vital and integrative role of geospatial information in driving sustainable development and thus can be used as a tool to put the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development into practice.
This volume can be a useful resource for readers regarding research on geospatial issues on both the regional and local scale. Both undergraduate and graduate students around the globe can advance their academic and research knowledge of past and present environmental problems and learn how geospatial planning can be applied for sustainable development. It also appeals to researchers, academics, practitioners, community developers and policy makers interested in promoting sustainable development.
Dieses Fachbuch bietet einen sehr praxisorientierten Überblick über die unterschiedlichen Werkzeuge der Strategieentwicklung und deren Anwendung. Die logische Abfolge der einzelnen Schritte der Strategieentwicklung und der Strategieüberprüfung steht hierbei im Mittelpunkt. Wolfgang Harburger stellt bekannte Strategiekonzepte vor und bewertet diese im Hinblick auf ihre Anwendbarkeit in der unternehmerischen Praxis. Anhand von vielen anschaulichen Beispielen belegt er, wie wichtig eine systematische Auseinandersetzung mit einer geeigneten Unternehmensstrategie für die Entwicklung nachhaltiger Unternehmenswerte und langfristigen Kundennutzen ist. Dabei plädiert der Autor für logisch erschließbare Geschäftsbereichsstrategien, nachvollziehbare Zusammenhänge und konsequente selbstkritische Wirksamkeitskontrolle. Die richtige Balance zwischen den Zukunftskonzepten des Strategischen Managements und den Bedürfnissen des Operativen Managements, das direkt auf finanzielle Erträge ausgerichtet ist, spielt dabei eine entscheidende Rolle.
Vertriebsmitarbeiter der Finanzdienstleistungsbranche müssen Kunden schwer greifbare Produkte erklären, sich ständig ändernden Rahmenbedingungen anpassen und einem allgemeinen Vertrauensverlust entgegentreten. In keiner Branche ist die Kluft zwischen erfolgreichen und weniger erfolgreichen Verkäufern so groß wie in dieser. Doch wie von den Erfolgsrezepten der umsatzstarken Kollegen profitieren, die ihre magischen Fähigkeiten gewinnbringend einsetzen aber nur selten preisgeben?Ralf-Peter Prack und André Czerwionka lüften in diesem Buch die Zaubertricks der erfolgreichen Finanz-Vertriebler. Sie erläutern, mit welchem Selbstverständnis Verkaufsmagier ihren Kunden gegenübertreten, mit welchen Zutaten, Hilfsmitteln und Zaubersprüchen sie Kunden im Verkaufsgespräch zu einer bedarfsorientierten Kaufentscheidung führen und erfolgreich Verträge abschließen. Tipps für zielführendes Cross-Selling zeigen den Weg zur Knnerschaft des Meistermagiers zum Topverkäufer.In der 2. Auflage wurden die aktuellen Gesetzesänderungen eingearbeitet und um den GDV-Verhaltenskodex sowie die Weiterbildungsinitiative gut Beraten ergänzt. Daneben wurden neu entwickelte Rezepturen verzaubernde Verkaufsgespräche aufgenommen.
This book describes numerical simulations of collisions between asteroids, based on a unique numerical code developed by the author. The code accurately solves the elastic dynamic equations and describes the effects of fracture and friction, which makes it possible to investigate the shapes of impact outcomes produced by asteroid collisions and subsequent gravitational accumulation of fragments.
The author parallelizes the code with high parallelization efficiency; accordingly, it can be used to conduct high-resolution simulations with the aid of supercomputers and clarify the shapes of small remnants produced through the catastrophic destruction of asteroids. The author demonstrates that flat asteroids can only be produced by impacts involving objects with similar mass and low velocity, which suggests that the flat asteroids in our solar system were created in the planet formation era and have kept their shapes until today. The author also shows that asteroid collisions under certain conditions can produce the extremely elongated shape of an interstellar minor body, 1I/`Oumuamua. In brief, the book offers a comprehensive investigation of asteroid impacts and shapes, making it a uniquely valuable resource.
This book comprises select peer-reviewed papers from the International Conference on Emerging Research in Civil, Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering (ERCAM-2019). The contents focus on the latest research trends in engineering materials, mechanics, structures and systems. A wide variety of interesting problems in civil, aeronautical and mechanical engineering have been addressed in this book through various experimental, numerical and analytical methods. The topics covered also provide insight into the challenges prevailing in the aforementioned engineering domains and the potential solutions to address those. Given the contents, the book is a valuable resource for students as well as researchers.
This book amalgamates the basic concepts in understanding the science of maxillofacial skeleton with the clinical skills required towards managing complex facial fractures. The book is presented in two sections. The first section introduces the readers with the introduction to maxillofacial trauma, biomechanics of maxillofacial skeleton, the principle of internal fixation, medicolegal aspects of maxillofacial trauma, and preoperative workup which provides a brief outline towards an understanding of the basic concepts about the anatomy and physiology of facial skeleton. The second section is oriented clinically with case-based discussions that start from the emergency management of facial trauma including the recent protocols of basic life support and advanced trauma life support, emergency airway management followed by definitive management guidelines in stabilizing and fixing the fractured facial bones. The clinical cases have been discussed in a way to provide practical knowledge and skills to the postgraduate students and clinicians who will enhance their knowledge and facilitate the decision-making process. This book would be a valuable read for clinicians in oral & maxillofacial surgery, ENT surgery, plastic surgery and allied trauma specialists dealing with maxillofacial trauma.